BRIEF HISTORY OF EMBROIDERY

The origin of the embroidery on fabrics is not perfectly known but it seems that I’ve had beginning in China. However, it is known that, although at present be connoted a feminine practice, was initially a male art.

All over the world, the embroidery has been referenced, bibliograficamente, since antiquity.

It became a prosperous area in various regions of the world and, having been interpreted in different ways by their peoples, making it possible to identify its origin according to its characteristics.

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MATERIALS AND TOOLS

TOOLS FOR EMBROIDERY

To initiate your embroidery, you have to have a needle to embroider. Embroidery needles are characterised by the hole where the wire be more stretched than standard needles. These may present various thicknesses and sizes should be chosen according to the work you will perform.

In addition to the essential, also need a scissor tips.

If embroidery from a decal, will require a carbon paper tissue-specific and appropriate to the color of the fabric (dark to light fabrics and light to dark fabrics).

A very useful tool in this practice is the frame, which allows you to stretch the tissue at the point where you want to embroider. There are scenes of various materials and sizes.

Utensílios Bordado
Tecidos Bordado

FABRICS FOR EMBROIDERY

There are no specific fabrics to stitch because in fact any material can be embroidered, provided it is sufficiently tight to secure the points.

Of course there are fabrics that suit more to this practice and others are specific to a certain point (as is the case of reticular tissue, normally used to make cross stitch or tapestry), but you can embroider on nearly any type of tissue. Also, you can embroider on top of pieces of crochet or tricot.

Depending on your ultimate goal, you should choose a fabric that fits what you want to embroider.

EMBROIDERY YARNS

The embroidery can be of vegetable or animal origin be synthetic yarns. These can also be made from combinations of fibers. You should choose wires that fit the fabric you want to embroider and the needle must also be suitable for the type of wire.

There is a plethora of colors of yarn to stitch and it is this fact that allows you to create very realistic embroidery.

Each brand has its own color code. Often will appear schemas with the codes corresponding to the colors that should embroider on a given point, and usually will tell also what brand to which these codes belong.

These wires can be purchased either in the form of ball as in the form of thought and comes accompanied by a label. The label contains information about weight, the length, the composition and the code associated with the color (it depends on the brand).

Linhas Bordado

EMBROIDERY NOTES

NOTA 1

On the points

There is a huge amount of embroidery. Because they are so numerous, these are grouped according to their purpose and application.

Thus, there are boundary points, points straight loop points, points, points, points node, compound points inset points, points of hardanger, Tapestry and ajourados points points.

Embroidery, is also free embroidery (worked on a reason scratched or a decal in the fabric) and embroidery on yarn counted (worked on an exact number of threads, the threads of the fabric itself count).

NOTA 2

Manual Technique

Do not pull the wire too tight. Carries only the voltage required, pulling the wire, for which the points don’t get too tight with the fabric and the deformed. Must use wires that do not exceed the 50 cm because, as the wire will be pulled several times through the tissue, this tends to unravel and the scroll.

Another aspect to take into consideration is the need to stretch the fabric at the point where you are embroidering and it should make use of a frame. But despite this serve to stretch the fabric, must put it with the utmost care not to damage or even fabric embroidery.

Try to embroider a place that’s well lit because, as it is a work of minutia, makes “bored”.

NOTA 3

Embroidery care

Are not rare in the embroidery, washing or just over time, fades into the tissue in the area surrounding the embroidery, especially the darker colors. Even when it comes to an embroidery enclosed in a frame. But it could also happen the other way around and be the fabric to fade for your embroidery.

Either way, before you frame your embroidery or put to use, rinse the piece by hand with products designed for delicate clothes with lukewarm or cold water. Once washed, stretch the piece and wrap it in a towel to absorb the excess water. After dry, pass the iron with the embroidery facing down and cover the play with a pass.

Please also note that if your embroidery be exposed to intense sunlight (e.g. curtains), the color should lose, of course, its intensity.

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BASICS OF EMBROIDERY

As mentioned earlier, there are hundreds of different points to embroider, which result in different effects. Here are some of the most commonly used embroidery and, from these, you will be able to get some work and explore other points.

PONTO DE CETIM

The satin stitch (also known as satin stitch) is a fill period. The uniform fill effect is only possible if you do short points as long spikes tend to be pulled. So, try to make points not too long and if the drawing stroke area is large, split it into smaller parts.

You can also do some variations to this point, making him present a relief effect. For this, you will need to baste the outline of the drawing under the satin stitch.

NOTE: start and shot the embroidery, disguised as a few centimetres the wire underneath.

PONTO DE CRUZ

This point is formed by two straight points crossed over each other, and may vary the angle between them. So that at the end of its work, the set of points present a harmonious aspect should try cross always points the same way. Before you begin, set where you should start in the fabric, by counting the number of points (horizontal and vertical) you have to figure that will embroider to ensure you won’t get cut off or out of place.

Take note that before starting a work in cross stitch should make sure that the reason you want to embroider will fit in the space available. The space for this kind of embroidery is already predefined knowing that each cross formed by one point corresponds to two “holes” in a row (in both directions) and so, should the scheme that offers, the number of points you have to make and then tell groups of two “holes” in the fabric. Another important aspect is the reason, especially when you want to make a painting. If you already have the certainty that the fabric that features will fit the reason you want to embroider, you can centralize the work by folding the fabric in four parts and doing a vinca in the nozzle that corresponds to the inside of the fabric, will know where is, approximately, the Center. Start embroidering at that same point the center of reason.

NOTE: start and shot the embroidery, disguised as a few centimetres the wire underneath.

PONTO DE CADEIA

The point of the chain is a much used as form of contour but can also be used to fill a certain area of the drawing.
Try to make the points shorter and more or less the same length.

NOTE: start and shot the embroidery, disguised as a few centimetres the wire underneath.

PONTO DE HASTE

As well as the point of jail, also rod is a boundary point and also it can be used as fill. But the visual effect is different. 

Also in this case, try to make short points and approximately the same length.

NOTE: start and shot the embroidery, disguised as a few centimetres the wire underneath.

PONTO DE NÓ

This point (also known as knobby things French) serves to create a certain texture in your embroidery. Are small dots in high relief that give another dimension to the embroidery.

NOTE: start and shot the embroidery, disguised as a few centimetres the wire underneath.

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OTHER TECHNIQUES

BORDAR TAPEÇARIA

Embroidered tapestry is a very ancient craft technique. There are scattered all over the world, various relics of these artefacts that bear witness to this craftsmanship done by our ancestors. One of these examples is the famous Bayeux Tapestry, dating back to the 11th century and has a very important event in the history of that place in wool.

The embroidered in tapestry running typically on canvas, jute or burlap and there are a variety of embroidery are applied, such as Florentine point or the point gobelin.

But there is one point that is familiar for being from a parish in which gives the name: the point of Arraiolos.

This is a version of cross stitch, distinguished only in the way that intersect the straight points and the spacing between them. Thus, the cross corresponds to the point of arraiolos, presents the same height but not the same length.

Both at the beginning as in, cover the wire beneath some 4 points of arraiolos.

We will call the type of material to use. So, determine the center of your screen, and with a pencil, mark the axes in all its length and width. Count the points and make sure that the rug you want to do “fit” into the fabric that has, with some 20 to 25 cm off that should leave, all around, to then make the sheath.

This type of embroidery comprises six distinct and sequential steps:

first stitch the edges of the carpet, in any length and in any width;

2nd embroider the contours of the decorative motifs of the carpet;

3rd stitch in order to fill the decorative motifs that have been previously bypassed;

4 fill out, embroidering the spaces between the reasons (Note: always horizontally);

5 moisten and stretch the carpet, letting this dry on a flat surface;

6. Once dry, hem all the way around, eliminating the excess screen and apply the fringe (if applicable).

BAINHAS ABERTAS

Ajour point is the point used to make the base of what we call “open hems”. These consist of a way of working the wires of the warp and weft that make up a tissue, creating effects very simple or quite complex.

Means for hems because usually these are worked from the folded stitching around the edges of the fabric. But, these can also be made in other parts of the fabric and of various forms.

Before starting work the hemstitch, have to measure all around the fabric, the margin you want to leave and, then, the height of the bar. To open this same bar, will have to cut (carefully!) a given number of weft or warp threads of the fabric (usually linen) and pull them in order to create a “loose” arranged vertically (this operation must be done with great care not to cut or break yarn that was not supposed to be cut).

Now, with the wires all pulled, we can already start working the “open hems”. As stated earlier, the point is the base point of Ajour hemstitches. This point, embroidered on the outer part of the bar built, in addition to creating the desired effect, will also serve for sewing the edge of the fabric (not called sheath so you don’t get confused with the hemstitch). So, baste the fabric and make the Ajour point so as to unite the margin to the unravelled.

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PROJECTOS DE BORDADOS

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