BRIEF HISTORY OF SEWING
The seam is born from the need of primary protection of adversity imposed by nature.
Historical evidence indicates that the practice of sewing has originated in the Paleolithic, with rudimentary tools and natural fibers.
With the passage of time, it wasn’t just the skins of animals that were sewn to create garments; man learned to weave their own fabrics and they revolutionized the history of sewing. With the tissues also developed tools for sewing, which are numerous and that allow the most varied ways.
With the industrial revolution, much of the manual was replaced by the sewing sewing machine.
MATERIALS AND TOOLS
The practice of sewing can involve just a tool (needle) or more. These can be divided into: utensils of marking, cutting and sewing (proper).
First check your tissue. For this you may need a tape measure; chemical paper seamstress; a roller; tailor’s chalk (blue for clear and white fabrics to dark fabrics); of a ruler, a set square or Protractor.
Then, proceed to cutting the tissue. Sewing scissors (designed to cut tissues) are usually guys but if they are well cared for can last a long time. To do this, do not cut paper-cutting with them (use a stationery scissors) and avoid letting them fall to the floor. Very useful is also the slot for shears have a serrated blade, cut prevents the fabric if you shred.
As sewing wares: needles (of various sizes and thicknesses which must be chosen in function of their use); the pins (stainless steel or nickel, its thickness should be chosen in function of the tissues in order to avoid damaging its structure); the thimble (with different sizes in order to fit your middle finger of the hand that holds the needle, and facilitate the seam without getting hurt).
Iron utensils are also of utmost importance in this type of manual activity, mainly in the making.
FABRICS AND YARNS
The wires must be chosen according to the weight of the fabric you want to sew. So, for lightweight fabrics can use finer yarns like silk and for heavier fabrics will opt for or with polyester yarn. The basting thread should be sewn with basting thread because it’s a little twisted wire allows breaks up easily to leave only the final sewing.
- for fabrics of natural fibres (e.g. cotton, silk, linen)-using cotton or silk yarns
- for woollen fabrics-silk yarn or nylon
- for synthetic fabrics and fine or medium-use cotton or nylon
- for synthetic fabrics heavy-use polyester or polyester/cotton blend.
The sewing machine needles should be chosen according to the fabric you want to sew. The thickness and the type has to match the structure of the fabric. Already the stitch length has to do with the weight of the fabric; Typically, the more light is the fabric shorter should be the points.
In addition to the standard needles, there are also double and triple needles, to create certain effects and reinforcements.
In the following table are examples of the correspondence between the tissues, the needles and the points.
|Tipo de tecido|
|Comprimento do ponto|
|Leve (macio)||chiffon/organza/crepe/tule||ponta universal - tecidos|
ponta arredondada - malhas
|70 (9) - 80 (11)||1 - 1.5|
|Leve (rugoso)||cambraia fina/fustão/voile/organdi/bordado inglês/redes||ponta universal - tecidos|
ponta arredondada - malhas
|80 (11)||1 - 1.5|
|Médio (macio)||veludo fino/belbutina/seda/bombazina||ponta universal - tecidos|
ponta arredondada - malhas
|80 (11) - 90 (14)||1.5 - 2|
|Médio (rugoso)||tafetá/ popelina/ linho/ sarja fina/ tweed fino||ponta universal - tecidos|
ponta arredondada - malhas
|80 (11) - 90 (14)||1.5 - 2|
|Pesado (macio)||veludo/ bombazina larga/ pano turco/||ponta universal - tecidos|
ponta arredondada - malhas
|90 (14) - 100 (16)||2 - 2.5|
|Pesado (rugoso)||serapilheira/ lona/ tweeds/ denim||ponta universal - tecidos|
ponta arredondada - malhas
ponta aguçada -denim
|100 (16) -110 (18)||2.5 - 3|
|Couro e Vinílicos||pelica/ verniz/ camurça/ couro e imitações||ponta em facetada||80 (11) - 90 (14)||2.5 - 3|
Symbols of moulds
The molds, typically have a few lines and symbols that let you draw the piece you want to do in the fabric. Are as working guides.
Some molds are also multi-sizes, because they allow to adapt their measures as the mold is closer. In this case, the template should appear with a few lines that are repeated along the banks of the same.
(See more about molds on the basic of sewing).
|Alguns dos símbolos mais comuns em moldes|
|linha de corte|
(situa-se na margem exterior do molde)
|linhas de corte multi-medidas|
(indicam que tamanhos podem ser cortados)
|sentido do fio do tecido|
|linha onde se situa a dobra|
|linhas de modificações|
(indica onde o molde pode ser aumentado ou encurtado)
|linha de costura|
(situa-se junto da linha de corte)
|margem da costura|
|margem da bainha|
|casa para botão|
|posição do botão|
|combinação da casa e do botão|
|posição do colchete de mola|
|posição do fecho éclaire|
|Alguns dos símbolos mais comuns em moldes|
|barra que leva o cordão ou fita por dentro|
|proeminência do peito ou dos quadris|
|marcas que devem ficar bem vincadas no tecido através do molde (indicam pontos de união ou algum detalhe específico)|
|pontos de junção rigorosa das peças|
The task of passing it between seams is very important in the making. This is one more step of own manufacture itself, and for this reason should not be omitted to make your stay perfect piece.
There are many tools that help facilitate this task and others that can be you create as, for example, the cushion to spend collars.
During ironing the unfinished parts, be sure to remove all the pins as these may damage the iron or the fabric.
BASICS OF SEWING
MEDIDAS & MOLDES
There are molds to create the most varied pieces. In the confection of clothes, the templates correspond to a set of standard measures that are grouped to form a certain size of mold. You can buy a mold with the number that corresponds to your measurements or you can yourself to create your own templates with their measures.
But before buying or making the molds, it is necessary to take measures before.
TAKE THE MEASURES
So that the measurements are more stringent, it is preferable to be barefoot, in underwear and have the help of someone else.
In the confection of clothes that you need to rest firmly of the following measures, which should take a tape measure and point on a piece of paper.
NOTE: the chest girth is not included in the measures accompanying the molds. However, if a difference of 5 cm or more between the girth of the chest and bust, should preferably be guided by the extent of the breast as more accurate.
BUY A TEMPLATE
There are matching tables of sizes so you can follow them and figure out what number corresponds to your measurements. If the measures do not exactly match any sizes, choose the one that will require less basic modifications.
NOTE: Please note that your cast size may not match the same size that usually buy at the store!
In addition to the sizes, the molds for sale on the market can also bring with you other important information for making a particular piece. For example: the amount (in meters) of fabric you will need (corresponding to your measurements); the width of the fabric and the direction of the wire or the way must have molds on the fabric.
MAKE A MOLD
Depending on the complexity of the task of making a mold can be a more difficult job. The higher the sewing practice, more agile manner becomes the ability to devise a play and build their molds.
Start by practicing making a mold that will use as a reference. For it will have to take the measures necessary for the creation of the piece and will have to do some tests with basted parts only. After taste and adjust as necessary you can then draw the thick paper mold and use that same mold as reference for future parts.
MARCAÇÃO & CORTE
One of the most important aspects of markup is reading the direction of wires or of the hair and/or printed, the tissue that has and wants to work. This factor will dictate the way the fabric “fall” after the end of the play. Always keep this in mind before mark and cut your fabric.
With the fabric taut, and preferably locked up, trace the figures you want with the help of geometrical instruments (ruler, square …). Check with white chalk the dark fabrics and with blue chalk clear tissues, in ado inside out of the fabric.
If you select a form directly on your fabric, be sure to add seam margins to your measurements. For example, if you want to score two 40 x 40 cm squares to make a pillow, you have to add a small margin around these same squares, and then sew the innermost markup.
APPOINTMENT WITH MOLD
If you have a mold to create a particular piece will have to lay out the parts that make up the template on the fabric. How will lay should not be random, there is an order that should follow.
About the fabric folded and in your hand upside down, attach the different parts of the mold on the fabric with the help of pins, always bearing in mind the direction of fabric/yarn of tissue or the printed, as the case may be. Attach the pins on the sides of the mold, placing them diagonally, parallel to the cutting line.
Before cutting your fabric, make sure that all steps were completed:
- If are arranged on the fabric around the mold;
- If the position of the parties respects the mould sense fabric/yarn or hair/or of a stamped;
- If the fabric is taut and there is no fold or crease on the parts of the mould;
- If you put the right side of the mold on the fold line (if the fabric is folded) and if this same fold is well made;
- all fabric is on a flat surface and if the scissors that has able to make a clean cut.
After you have verified that gathers all the conditions to proceed to court you can cut all parts of the mold.
Then, with parts of the mold already cut, transfer all necessary markings to the fabric.
NOTE: If you use a roller to make the markings, do not forget to put the carbon paper under the mold seam.
COSTURA À MÃO
The sewing machine does not replace completely the seam by hand. On the contrary, the points by hand are indispensable in almost all types of clothing.
The seam by hand is very necessary to baste a piece and trace the conductive lines of sewing machines and there are many types of finishes that require that the seam is completed by hand.
To start sewing by hand, you may need to tie a knot with their fingers, at the end of the wire that will sew. Often the node is replaced by a small number of points behind (superimposed) that in addition to prevent the wire off of the fabric, disguise the protrusion in the tissue formed by the node.
The seam by hand must be made by hand inside out of the fabric and usually is made from right to left.
The points should be chosen according to the ultimate goal intended but taking into consideration the type of fabric that will work. Among the most used in sewing by hand are the points: basting; ago and blanket.
The basting thread are marking points. Apply this to make provisional seams points, to join two or more part of a fabric, to mark the location of pockets, to create the folds, among others. Often uses a different color of stitching that will be permanent to be easier to identify and be able to remove them.
This section allows you to make seams resistant and is the most appropriate point to be made if you do a play all sewn up by hand. Is usually used to circumvent in straight lines.
Always try to make points with the same length and preferably short.
This point is very used to make the buttonhole stitch around the edge of a fabric.
If these points are made very close is called the point of Caesar and is widely used for Caesar buttonholes or tissue margins, creating a tight margin.
NOTE: all of these points are also used in embroidery.
COSTURA À MÁQUINA
There are many different types and brands of sewing machines on the market but the principle behind its operation is basically the same for all of them.
The machine alone doesn’t make any sewing job requires also a good synchronization between your hands and your (s) (s) and that is respected throughout the sequence of passage of wire onto the point of the seam in the fabric. This sequence will create the necessary tension to form perfect points and uniforms.
So, and before any step, please refer to the instruction manual of your machine and know the name of the main parties that constitutes and its functionality.
Stay here only an image illustrative of the parts that make up a sewing machine and its location.
Now that you know your machine, you will have to proceed to the coil winding and the sequence of steps that represent line Threading on the top and bottom.
The coil (small “spool”) provides the line to run to the bottom of each point.
Bobbin filling is done, usually somewhere on the outside of the sewing machine. Consult your instruction book to find out where to fulfill this step.
Fill the bobbin evenly, ensuring that the line if you distribute the same way throughout its length.
After full, put the bobbin in the bobbin case which is normally just below the metal plate where the presser foot runs to the top of the points and make out the line for the slot of this box.
THREADING THE UPPER THREAD
Here presents a simplified form of how to make the upper Threading. But, as each machine has its following, be sure where exactly these machine parts that ensure the perfect sequence of threading and maintain the perfect voltage line to run the spots.
- Hold the line that is already positioned on the needle. With your other hand, turn the steering wheel in order to download the needle as close as possible to the coil.
- Then rotate the wheel but in the opposite direction, making the needle rise to its highest point-at this stage the needle should bring with it a loop of the bobbin thread.
- Pull the loop of line in order to find the end of my line and then pull a bit more of the same for, here too, leave a little loose end of at least 10 cm.
- Making both loose ends under the presser foot, pull them back by your right.
Until you can find the perfect thread tension and the ideal force exerted on the pedal, practice with some minor works or with useless flaps.
The seals are an integral part of almost all items of clothing and other. The types of locks used are:
- brackets-hook of the spring;
- velcro tape;
- buttons-holes (2 or 4 holes) or standing (with holes or lined with fabric);
- Zipper (or zippers)-metal or nylon.
Are fasteners with a tongue and Groove system. The hook applies when you want to play close in a certain point but not the seals, because the hook clasps are often sewn on the inside out. In spring brackets, the closing pressure is greater, causing these to open with less ease than hook.
Also matches the tongue and Groove system. The tape is composed of two parts that “fit” together. Are sewn in piece so that they are parallel to each other and when pressed, against one another, their forms “fit”.
The clips with buttons require there to be a “home” where they become trapped. The buttons with holes exert greater pressure on the House to the foot. The buttons are chosen according to personal taste (how many more holes-more stuck is the fabric), with the claim to match or contrast with the elaborate piece, since this type of closures is almost always visible. The foot can be lined with fabric buttons, creating the possibility of lining with the same tissue from the rest of the piece.
Is a closure consisting of two toothed tracks that join through a cursor. One of the first aspect to consider is the type of material where the zipper will be applied, and the nylon zippers are more versatile and metal latches apply more heavier fabrics. Another aspect to consider is the type of closure that applies to the part in question as there are locks that have a “brake” and only open to a certain limit and there are latches that open completely, separating two parts of the piece at this point.
The patchwork refers to a type of sewing job in which combine patchwork of fabrics of various colors or printed, creating a variety of Visual effects. Although it is commonly used to make quilts, patchwork also can apply in pieces like skirts, bags, etc.
The patchworks simplest consist of flaps with the same shape and the most complex are composed of patches of various sizes and different shapes. You can also ask if applications of tissues in the form of stylized objects. Depending on the pattern you choose to do your job, you will be able to apply best sewing by hand or machine stitching.
DRAW A PATTERN
Before you begin, and to buy the fabric, set that pattern you want to make and calculate how many pieces you will need to make the piece of the size that you want. At this stage you should also consider the colors that will be used and its effect in that this combination will work.
The best way to show the pattern, with their colors and sizes, is to make small diagrams on sheets of graph paper. From these schemes is that you can better draw a plan of what they need to do their job. Example:
BUILD THE MOLDS
After you have outlined your standard, you have to build the moulds, on paper, that will be the template of that same pattern.
For this you will need measuring instruments. For figures of straight lines (squares, triangles …) use ruler and set square. For curved figures use compass and protractor.
To create the templates (templates) will have to proceed to the following steps:
- draw on graph paper and in actual size, the set of pictures that match the model that you have chosen to create the pattern that you want to;
- cut carefully, all the shapes that constitute this model;
- trace the outline of the figures previously clipped over a thick paper and cut out these figures-these will correspond to the marking templates;
- use the cut-out figures in step 2, and put them on a new thick paper. In this role should draw the same pictures but this time after tracing a margin of addition of 0.5 cm around all of them-these figures will correspond to templates.
NOTE: as an alternative to cutting and marking templates make a mold with a window (including the actual size and the margin within the same template!).
Select the fabric with a pencil or tailor’s chalk.
Sewing patchwork parts follows a sequential order that must be preset initially. So, before you start to sew, make a scheme to hand of the order which should follow.
Also need to know beforehand what kind of seams do, where and how to apply them, will be made by hand or machine.
How will the seams will depend on the forms and reasons. Prior to joining the pieces need to leave them ready, tucking the edges and tacking them back. To facilitate this task, centre the template marking and secure it in the center of the tissue with a PIN (on the wrong side). With margins turned, pass them to to stay strong or baste them.
The junction of the parts can be made in careers, in sections (decks) or in a single piece.
The padded cover 1 1 crafts technique that consists in filling with a filling between two pieces of fabric.
For this filling stay fixed on the inside of these parts, there are points in order to unite the two parts and create a specific reason.
For the top layer of quilting, choose lightweight fabrics, with an average thickness and opaque (ex: Poplin cloth, blanket, etc). This tissue type makes it easy to create a reason with accrued points so that it is noticeable.
The bottom layer of quilting is no longer required to be as light as the fabric of the top layer. May be different in color or printed, according to your tastes.
The filling of the quilts can be of natural origin (ex: cotton or wool) or synthetic origin (polyester).
Any one of them makes the padded warm but when you have to choose, don’t forget to take into account the use that will give the play and sometimes you will need to wash. Typically, the source natural fillers tend to deform with use and of synthetic origin keeps the form more easily.
The reasons drawn on a comforter can be “more than many”.
However, you can do a padding:
- circumventing existing grounds in the upper layer tissue (i.e. patchwork). The outline of these reasons will cause the schema chosen protrudes more.
- making geometric motifs on the fabric, using bench points (e.g. squares-drawn from horizontal or diagonal lines).
- drawing, through points, stylized figures (e.g., flowers).
But before you draw the reason on the fabric, rinse it well and then determine the center of the fabric (check this point with some basting thread by hand with a contrasting color).
Lay out the reason you want to create on a piece of paper and make sure the fabric measures that are necessary to draw has this same reason. After making sure you have enough fabric and this is well tensioned, download the reason you chose for your fabric (with carbon paper + pencil pins or stencil + tailor’s chalk, or other tagging tools).
The padding can be sewn by hand or machine.
The seam by hand is preferred when dealing with quilts large because the volume of the piece will make it difficult to maneuver on the machine. In sewing by hand is necessary to try to make small points and the more uniform as possible with regard to their length. Use long needles and choose its thickness according to the fabric you will use. Do not use wires with more than 50 cm each, in order to avoid is always the tangled.
Sewing machine, since it produces more accurate points, applies to make small parts of padded or so quilts made in parts or in blocks.
The edges of quilts can be made in different ways but the most used are:
- the banks where he creates an edge around the top layer woven from the fabric of the bottom layer-in this case it is necessary that the tissue of the lower layer is larger than the upper layer;
- the margins of both fabrics are aimed “to face” one another.