BRIEF HISTORY OF KNITTING
The knitting is an ancient art that, apparently, originated somewhere in the Middle East.
The oldest specimens, referring to this technique, have been found in Egypt, showing already some complexity and color of wool.
When this technique came to Europe, had a higher expression in the Nordic countries. Later, with the industrial revolution, this practice has become just a hobby. However, in some countries in South America, the yarn and wool animal farm represent a very important role in its economy.
MATERIALS AND TOOLS
TOOLS FOR KNITTING
In order to start any knitting project, you will have to own, necessarily, a pair of knitting needles.
In addition to the essential, you may also need a pair of scissors and a tape measure (indispensable for measuring a sample, as well as the length of the knitted piece).
There are many other accessories that can assist you in this practice or even allow you to create certain effects in the mesh produced. Among these are: the stitch holder (keeps in abeyance the stitches that you aren’t knitting); the knitting counter (allows you to count the careers as long as the work progresses); the woolen needle (with a rounded tip, serves to sew the various parts of a piece); the cable stitch holder (helps to create a shape of a braid in relief); the needle gauge (allows you to determine the needle caliber), etc.
There are three types of knitting needles: straight needles (standard needles), double pointed needles and circular needles (attached by a cable). Each of these needles are applied accordingly to your ultimate goal. These can be made of various materials (wood, bamboo, carbon fiber, metal and plastic) and can present a wide range of calibers and lengths.
Here is a table with some knitting needles gauges conversions (note: different needles marks may show some conversion variations):
|Agulhas de Tricot|
|SISTEMA MÉTRICO (mm)||SISTEMA AMERICANO|
|Agulhas de Tricot (cont.)|
|SISTEMA MÉTRICO (mm)||SISTEMA AMERICANO|
As well as needles, knitting yarns also can be made of various materials (animal, vegetable or synthetic fibres and combinations) and present different thicknesses.
Knitting yarn can be purchased either in the form of ball as in a skein form, and usually come accompanied by a label.
This label contains the washing instructions, size of needles to use, weight, length, composition and a code associated with the color (it depends on the brand).
The label is important to keep in case of you need to buy more to to finish a job, to repeat it before or simply to repair it.
There is a terminology associated with this technic that you should know before starting your knitting projects. This knowledge will allows you to interpret correctly the schematics and diagrams that you might want to do.
Here are a few terms and abbreviations that you can find in the available knitting schemes and it correspondence in Portuguese.
|BO||bind off||desmontar as malhas da agulha|
|CC||contrast color||cor de contraste|
|cn||cable needle||agulha circular
|CO||cast on||montar as malhas|
|dpn||double pointed needle||agulha de duas pontas (ag 2p)|
|fl||front loop||laço frontal|
|k ou K||knit||malha de meia (mm)|
|kwise||knit wise||como meia (cm)|
|l ou lp||loop||laço/argola (arg)|
|LH||left hand||mão esquerda
(refere-se à mão não dominante)
|m1||make one stitch||fazer uma malha (1m)|
|MC||main color||cor principal|
|p ou P||purl||malha de liga (ml)|
|psso||pass slipped stitch over||malha passada por cima|
|pwise||purl wise||como liga (cl)|
|RH||right hand||mão direita
(refere-se à mão dominante)
|St st||stockinette stitch||refere-se ao ponto jersey|
|tbl||through back loop||por trás do laço|
|tfl||through front loop||pela frente do laço|
|WS||wrong side||lado avesso|
|wyib||with yarn in back||com o fio para trás do trabalho (ftt)|
|wyif||with yarn in front||com o fio para a frente do trabalho (fft)|
|yo||yarn over||laçar ou laçada (laç)|
|yrn||yarn around needle||fio em torno da agulha (laçado)|
|yon||yarn over needle||fio sobre a agulha|
|[ ]||work instructions within brackets as many times as directed||as instruções entre parênteses rectos explicam uma técnica ou o processo a fazer num determinado ponto|
|( )||work instructions within parentheses as many times as directed||as instruções entre parênteses curvos devem ser repetidas o número de vezes indicado|
|* *||repeat instructions between asterisks as many times as directed or repeat from a given set of instructions||as instruções entre asteriscos devem ser repetidas tantas vezes quantas permitir o número de malhas que estão na agulha da mão não dominante|
|''||inche(s)||1'' = 2,54 cm|
In addition to the terms, there’s also a symbolism associated with the knitting. However, while there are many knitting schemes available from many countries, these symbols are not normalized. But, fortunately, many of them have the respective caption and it is this information that you must follow. Anyway, here are a few symbols found in knitting schemes. The schemes must always be read from bottom to top.
|Alguns dos símbolos mais usados no tricot|
|malha de meia|
|malha de liga|
|malha de meia no fio de trás|
|malha de liga no fio de trás|
|malha passada como liga com o fio por trás|
|malha passada como liga com o fio pela frente|
|cruzar à direita 2 malhas de meia|
|cruzar à esquerda 2 malhas de meia|
|Alguns dos símbolos mais usados no tricot|
|aumento levantado à direita|
|aumento levantado à esquerda|
|2 malhas de meia juntas|
|2 malhas de meia juntas por trás|
|2 malhas de liga juntas|
|2 malhas de liga juntas por trás|
|malha de meia, liga e meia na mesma malha|
|aumento intercalar invisível|
|malha alongada simples|
|malha acavalada simples|
|malha acavalada dupla|
|instruções especiais (explicadas à parte)|
How you hold the needles and the tension that will create handling the yarn, are very important for a good technique in the art of knitting. But nothing that a little practice can’t fix it!
There is no right way to hold the needles. You should hold it with your hands in a way that you find as more comfortable. However, should handle it with some dexterity.
The tension exerted on the yarn must be regular and moderate. That is, a regular tension will produce standard stitches (all with the same height), and a moderate tension will allows you work with a great flow and without very tight stitches. To create the correct tension, you will have to intertwine the yarn around your fingers and find the best way that works for you.
There are dozens of knitting stitches that you can learn and explore but not before meeting some basic steps in order to put your knitting on the march.
When required, this node represents the first point of the chain stitches that will work on your needle. You can do this with the help of a needle or simply with the hands.
Note: depending on the work that you are running, it may be necessary to leave a reasonable thread length. Anyway, you should always leave a few centimetres of yarn at the beginning of your work (about 15 cm).
With the cast on you will build the first row of stitches on your needle (your work fondation). To perform this step, there are several different methods that result also in different visual effects. Here are two different methods of casting on: the simple cast on (thumb method) and the italian cast on.
SIMPLE CAST ON
This method uses only one needle and requires a slip knot. The stitches are mounted on the needle after the slip knot, using only the yarn that comes from the ball.
ITALIAN CAST ON (OR DOUBLE)
In this method, you will also need only one needle and also requires a slip knot. As difference, the stitches are mounted on the needle right after the knot but you will needed the yarn that comes from the ball and the tip of the ball. So, when you do the slip knot you should leave the necessary length to make the number of stitches that you want to cast on your needle and a few more centimeters to after power shot the wire and not get tight.
The mesh of a half (revesilho) is one of two elementary tricot knits. As a characteristic, this mesh is always done Threading the needle by the back of the ring, “the first knitted on needle. In addition, after the previous step, the needles will cross in the form of “X”, the needle of the dominant hand (which is empty) by the back of that “X”.
The thread tension must be managed by the back of the work, by the hand that gives you more way (the hand that allow you to make your work more comfortable and uniform).
The League is corresponds to the other elemental tricot mesh. As a characteristic, this mesh is always done Threading the needle by the front of the ring, “the first knitted on needle. In addition, after the previous step, the needles will cross in the form of “X”, the needle of the dominant hand (which is empty) from the front of this “X”.
The tension of the wire must be run from the front of the work, by the hand that gives you more way (the hand that allow you to make your work more comfortable and uniform).
There are dozens of yarn, resulting from the combination between half and meshes knitted mesh alloy (basically, it can be said that vary between these two techniques, the wire position for the work and the position of the meshes). Three of the base points of the yarn are: point mousse (or garter), the jersey and the fluted point.
The mousse point represents the simplest point of knitting. After results in wavy surface knit but regularly and with some elasticity. Its appearance is identical on both sides of the work.
Number of meshes: any number.
Note: If you do all the careers with alloy mesh will get an identical result.
POINT OF JERSEY
This point is very used in making clothing. Is one of the most used in knitting and results from the alternation of half meshes and call in every career. The point jersey features a smooth surface (generally considered to be on the right side) and a wavy surface.
Number of meshes: any number.
The fluted point is often used to do you sew, collars and cuffs or borders, but also can compose a whole piece of knitting. This point shape embossed vertical lines on both sides of the knitted work and presents a great elasticity.
Number of meshes: 1/1 rib = 2/multiple 2/2 rib = multiples of 4.
Note: Please note that in the following career (when your job back), will have to match the previously knitted fabrics. That is, on the inside out have to knit as connects the meshes that present themselves as League and knit as half the meshes that are presented as an alloy.
A needle passes to the other, the other passes to another … and there comes a time when we want to get rid of the needles and finish our job.
To do this, and just as there are different ways to mount the meshes on the needle, there are various ways to disassemble the needle knits and finalize your project.
The simple is, as the name indicates, the simplest way to shoot your piece of knitting. This type of shot, resulting in edge pretty steady.
After finishing any piece, attach the wire to your work doesn’t unravel.
You have to do is cut a few centimetres of wire and pull him inside the last mesh. Once you have pulled the cord, try to tie a knot in the latter (for this you can also use a tapestry needle, if I give you more way).
After ensuring that the work is not going to undo, cover the wire inside the side margin of your work with the help of a tapestry needle (with rounded tip).
CABLE STITCH (BRAID)
The famous “plaits” or “strings” of winter jerseys correspond to a kind of fancy point, very appreciated in the knitting.
Normally, what happens is the exchange of position of four or more meshes, which are “suspended” auxiliary needle, two-headed or braids.
This change of position of the meshes will create a high relief on knitted piece (more visible if the meshes are worked as half mesh on a background of alloy mesh), giving the desired effect of a braided.
TWISTED (INCLINED TO THE RIGHT)
The point exemplified results from twist, right, of six meshes.
If the mesh transferred to the auxiliary needle stay from the front of the work, the twist produces-if to the left.
This change of position of the meshes will take place every four, six, eight or more careers, as is your desire that these appear a lot or a little twisted.
In knitting, you can work with several wires of different colors (jacquard) and create numerous motives and effects.
To knit a piece with different colors, there are different methods, some more complex than others, that vary according to the chosen motive requirement.
WHEN THE COLOR DOES NOT CHANGE TO LONG IN THE SAME CAREER
When the motif is repeated throughout the width of the piece, as in the case of horizontal stripes, alternating the colors chosen by the lateral margin, at the end of the last career of each color.
-If the chosen colors correspond to five or less consecutive careers
In this case, the strings do not need to be cut and can switch colors by the lateral margin of the piece.
-If the chosen colors correspond to more than five or fewer consecutive careers
In this case, the wires will have to be cut at the end of the last career of each color (leaving a reasonable length so you can always be disguised by the lateral margin and avoid shred) and it is necessary to reconnect the Hanks to play when the color is requested again.
WHEN THE COLOR CHANGES TO LONG IN THE SAME CAREER
Sometimes the reasons chosen require making color changes in the same career. When that’s the case, there are three different ways to do it that apply according to this same reason.
the colors change once in the same career
These reasons are usually works in jersey and the color changes are made on binds career, crossing the wires of two different colors, so as not to form holes in your knitting part.
The colors change often in the same career-with spaces less than 5 meshes
In these cases, the method chosen is the extended wire on wrong side. While knitting a color, the yarn not in use is extended by the back of the work. This wire should be a little lasso, so that the mesh does not stay repuxadas.
You can execute this method using both hands: while a knitting, the other extends the wire.
The colors change often in the same career-with spaces in excess of 5 loops
In these cases, the method chosen is the yarn inside out. This technique intertwines in the wire that is not being worked. This wire is conducted alternately above and below of the meshes.
If the reason has spaces less than five meshes and others over five meshes, can employ these last two methods combined.
You can execute this method using both hands: while a knitting, the other going to the wire between the interlocking loops.